Tutorial 8 - Making it Smooooth

Unless you’ve got a really fast internet connection, you may notice that when you press the button, the GUI for your app locks up for a little bit. This is because the web request we have made is synchronous. When our application makes the web request, it waits for the API to return a response before continuing. While it’s waiting, it isn’t allowing the application to redraw - and as a result, the application locks up.

GUI Event Loops

To understand why this happens, we need to dig into the details of how a GUI application works. The specifics vary depending on the platform; but the high level concepts are the same, no matter the platform or GUI environment you’re using.

A GUI app is, fundamentally, a single loop that looks something like:

while not app.quit_requested():

This loop is called the Event Loop. (These aren’t actual method names - it’s an illustration of what is going on in “pseudo-code”).

When you click on a button, or drag a scroll bar, or type a key, you are generating an “event”. That “event” is put onto a queue, and the app will process the queue of events when it next has the opportunity to do so. The user code that is triggered in response to the event is called an event handler. These event handlers are invoked as part of the process_events() call.

Once an app has processed all the available events, it will redraw() the GUI. This takes into account any changes that the events have caused to the display of the app, as well as anything else that is going on in the operating system - for example, the windows of another app may obscure or reveal part of our app’s window, and our app’s redraw will need to reflect the portion of the window that is currently visible.

The important detail to notice: while an application is processing an event, it can’t redraw, and it can’t process other events.

This means any user logic contained in an event handler needs to complete quickly. Any delay in completing the event handler will be observed by the user as a slowdown (or stop) in GUI updates. If this delay is long enough, your operating system may report this as a problem - the macOS “beachball” and Windows “spinner” icons are the operating system telling you that your app is taking too long in an event handler.

Simple operations like “update a label”, or “recompute the total of the inputs” are easy to complete quickly. However, there are a lot of operations that can’t be completed quickly. If you’re performing a complex mathematical calculation, or indexing all the files on a file system, or performing a large network request, you can’t “just do it quickly” - the operations are inherently slow.

So - how do we perform long-lived operations in a GUI application?

Asynchronous programming

What we need is a way to tell an app in the middle of a long-lived event handler that it is OK to temporarily release control back to the event loop, as long as we can resume where we left off. It’s up to the app to determine when this release can occur; but if the app releases control to the event loop regularly, we can have a long-running event handler and maintain a responsive UI.

We can do this by using asynchronous programming. Asynchronous programming is a way to describe a program that allows the interpreter to run multiple functions at the same time, sharing resources between all the concurrently running functions.

Asynchronous functions (known as co-routines) need to be explicitly declared as being asynchronous. They also need to internally declare when an opportunity exists to change context to another co-routine.

In Python, asynchronous programming is implemented using the async and await keywords, and the asyncio module in the standard library. The async keyword allows us to declare that a function is an asynchronous co-routine. The await keyword provides a way to declare when an opportunity exists to change context to another co-routine. The asyncio module provides some other useful tools and primitives for asynchronous coding.

Making the tutorial Asynchronous

To make our tutorial asynchronous, modify the say_hello() event handler so it looks like this:

async def say_hello(self, widget):
    async with httpx.AsyncClient() as client:
        response = await client.get("https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts/42")

    payload = response.json()


There are only 4 changes in this code from the previous version:

  1. The method is defined as async def, rather than just def. This tells Python that the method is an asynchronous co-routine.

  2. The client that is created is an asynchronous AsyncClient(), rather than a synchronous Client(). This tells httpx that it should operate in asynchronous mode, rather than synchronous mode.

  3. The context manager used to create the client is marked as async. This tells Python that there is an opportunity to release control as the context manager is entered and exited.

  4. The get call is made with an await keyword. This instructs the app that while we are waiting for the response from the network, the app can release control to the event loop.

Toga allows you to use regular methods or asynchronous co-routines as handlers; Toga manages everything behind the scenes to make sure the handler is invoked or awaited as required.

If you save these changes and re-run the app (either with briefcase dev in development mode, or by updating and re-running the packaged app), there won’t be any obvious changes to the app. However, when you click on the button to trigger the dialog, you may notice a number of subtle improvements:

  • The button returns to an “unclicked” state, rather than being stuck in a “clicked” state.

  • The “beachball”/”spinner” icon won’t appear

  • If you move/resize the app window while waiting for the dialog to appear, the window will redraw.

  • If you try to open an app menu, the menu will appear immediately.

Next steps

We’ve now got an application that is slick and responsive, even when it’s waiting on a slow API. But how can we make sure that the app keeps working as we continue to develop it further? How do we test our app? Turn to Tutorial 9 to find out…